SELECTED MINING STUDIES
  
Acid drainage spring and algal growth, Eagle Mine, Colorado
 
  
  
Okanogan Highlands Alliance, Buckhorn Mine, Washington State. Have served as independent water quality and mining consultant to OHA for over 15 years, assisting OHA on issues related to the mine, including: baseline water quality; effects of mine operation on groundwater and surface water quality; interpretation of geochemical testing results; and evaluation of NPDES permit and associated documents, including the Adaptive Management Plan, the Development Rock Management Plan, the Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, and water treatment approaches. Have participated in meetings with Crown Resources/Kinross and the Washington Department of Ecology and devised strategies to prevent the escape of and contain mine-related contaminants within the designated capture zone.
 
The Nature Conservancy; Water Quality and Copper-organic Complexing, Pebble Project Area, Alaska. In collaboration with the University of Colorado-Boulder, designed and co-managed laboratory experiments to evaluate the extent and type of copper-organic complexing in streams draining the Pebble Project area (a world-class copper-gold deposit) in southwestern Alaska. Implications for toxicity to salmonids and the setting of stream standards were discussed. Additional work included evaluation of water quality data in surrounding streams, groundwater, and seeps. Presented findings to U.S. EPA, American Fisheries Society, and Geological Society of America.
 
Earthworks; Evaluation of Predicted and Actual Water Quality in Environmental Impact Studies for Large Mines in the United States, and Mine Characterization and Modeling State-of-the-Art. Conducted two landmark studies: 1) Comparison of the predictions before mining of the quality of water made in EISs with the actual quality of water after mining began. Study of the causes of prediction failure or success, including characterization, modeling, and mitigation measures. 2) Technical evaluation of the state-of-the-art geochemical and hydrogeologic methods and models used to predict water quality at hardrock mines; advantages and disadvantages of each method, and recommendations for improving prediction and characterization methods.
 
State of Montana, Natural Resource Damage Program; East Helena Smelter Site. Evaluation of approaches for restoration of the alluvial aquifer under and downgradient of the East Helena smelter site in Montana. Main contaminants are arsenic, metals, and sulfate. Includes examination of existing groundwater impacts and remediation measures used to date and proposal of methods to improve groundwater quality, especially for arsenic, beyond remedial goals.
 
State of Montana Department of Justice; Natural Resource Damage Program (NRDP), Clark Fork River. Evaluated degree of success of phytostabilization of streamside tailings along the Clark Fork River in Montana. Major issues include long-term chemical stability of mixing of amendments with fluvially deposited mine waste, acid-base accounting and calculation of liming rate, and movement of metals and arsenic from amended tailings to groundwater and surface water. Also working with NRDP to evaluate water quality consequences of removing Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River.
  
  
  
International Finance Corporation (IFC), Compliance Advisory Ombudsman Office; Yanacocha Mine, Peru. Served as independent monitor of potential water quality impacts related to operation of the Yanacocha Mine in northern Peru, the largest gold mine in Latin America. Issues included effects of mineralized areas (natural mineralization) on stream water quality, and fate and transport of metals and other elements from mine to groundwater and streams.  

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Various Offices; Evaluation of Hardrock Mine Applications and Environmental Impact Statements. Served as primary technical outside reviewer of geochemical and water quality issues (groundwater and surface water) for the U.S. EPA on hardrock mine National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and associated documents.
 
State of New Mexico, Office of Natural Resource Trustee; Twelve Sites in New Mexico. Preliminary evaluation of potential natural resource (groundwater, surface water, terrestrial) injury and damages from eight mine sites and four petroleum sites in New Mexico. The mine sites included five hardrock mine sites and three uranium solution mining sites. Estimated volume and flux of impacted groundwater and managed overall project, which included estimation of injured terrestrial (soil) resources, riparian and upland vegetation, and surface water resources. Reports also included costing of projects to compensate for injured natural resources.
 
U.S. Geological Survey, Questa mine site, New Mexico.  Worked with the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, to examine baseline surface water and groundwater quality in a watershed affected by molybdenum mining and natural mineralization from hydrothermal scars. Primary author on historical surface water quality and co-author on historical groundwater quality Scientific Investigation Reports published by the U.S. Geological Survey for the project. 
 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Coeur d’Alene Tribe; Coeur d’Alene Mining District, Idaho. Evaluated pre-mining water quality and soil conditions, and soil/sediment and surface water quality, especially for cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations. Involved understanding mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits and surrounding rocks and the effect of weathering on metal concentrations in rocks, soils, sediment, and water. Evaluated pathways for transport of metals from sources to surface water and groundwater resources, and issues related to lake water and sediment geochemistry. Served as expert on fate and transport, water and sediment/soil quality, and baseline and lake issues for Federal trustees and Tribe in Superfund/Natural Resource Damage Assessment case. Provided expert reports and testified at trial in federal court.
 
State of Montana; Clark Fork River Mining Sites, Montana. Prepared natural resource damage claim for groundwater injury in Butte, Montana. Evaluated sources and pathways of groundwater contamination, transport of acid drainage, contaminants of concern, areas where relevant standards have been violated, mobility of hazardous substances, baseline conditions, and recoverability of the groundwater resource. Served as principal expert for groundwater resources in settlement negotiations between ARCO and the state of Montana. Advised on approaches to restore natural resources. Principal groundwater chemistry expert for the state in upcoming court case against ARCO.